Contents
  1. Sustainable agroecosystems in climate change mitigation
  2. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans
  3. Pedra de raio (folclore) – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
  4. camadas pele pdf to jpg

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Raios de Luz. p. 1 / Embed or link this publication. Description. A Revista do Instituto Gnóstico de Antropologia de Portugal. Popular Pages. p. 1. VOLUME 1| . Não efetue quaisquer alteracões às suas rodas tensão dos raios, Se cair ou se sofrer um acidente, é essencial que solicite uma inspeção. Read {PDF Epub} Download Prometo Amar by Pedro Chagas Freitas from the Promete que vais cair. Então porque raios ainda estás parado a ler isto?.

Here, we present and compare two of them that are particularly well-suited for creating sustained periods of invisibility, namely visual crowding and continuous flash suppression CFS. In visual crowding, a peripheral image surrounded by similar flankers becomes impossible to discriminate. In CFS, an image presented to one eye becomes impossible to detect when rapidly changing patterns are presented to the other eye. After discussing the experimental specificities of each method, we give a comparative overview of the main empirical results derived from them, from the mere analysis of low-level features to the extraction of semantic contents. We conclude by proposing practical guidelines and future directions to obtain more quantitative and systematic measures of non-conscious processes under prolonged stimulation. Introduction For long, the most prevalent method used to disrupt visual awareness was masking, which consists in presenting a stimulus very briefly, in temporal contiguity with noise patterns Breitmeyer and Ogmen, Visual masking has been extremely fruitful in describing both the architecture of the visual system and the properties of non-conscious vision Kouider and Dehaene, Yet, as masked stimuli become visible when presented for longer than a few 10s of milliseconds, masking is not well suited for the investigation of cognitive functions requiring sustained stimulation such as motion processing, perceptual learning, sequential learning, visual search, temporal integration, etc. In this review, we present and compare two techniques that, contrary to masking, allow for prolonged stimulation while maintaining a reliable control of awareness. The first method, visual crowding, makes a peripheral object surrounded by similar flankers impossible to discriminate, so that one cannot determine consciously some of its specific features like its angular orientation, shape, or color Levi, ; Pelli and Tillman, ; Whitney and Levi, The second method, continuous flash suppression CFS , renders an object presented to one eye undetectable when the other eye is flashed with a stream of rapidly changing patterns, so that one cannot determine consciously whether the stimulus is present or absent Tsuchiya and Koch, ; for reviews see Lin and He, ; Sterzer et al. A major distinction between crowding and CFS is at the phenomenological level: while crowding prevents stimulus discriminability, CFS prevents stimulus detectability although situations of partial awareness exist in CFS, see below. We focused on CFS and crowding as they constitute, as of today, the two most suited methods to study the temporal dynamics of conscious vs. Although other methods can induce long periods of invisibility, they are not suited for psychophysical procedures e. The phenomena of crowding and CFS are driven by specific properties of the visual system and constitute by themselves specific research questions.

Stress induced directly before extinction training led to lower US-expectancy ratings at the start of extinction in males who showed robust cortisol responses to stress, suggesting that stress impaired fear memory retrieval compared to controls. In contrast, female stress participants showed little cortisol response and intact fear memory retrieval. Perhaps due to the limited number of extinction trials, extinction learning was not demonstrated in either group, so prolonged effects of stress on fear memory retrieval were instead examined the following day.

Men in the stress condition again showed reduced US-expectancy ratings the following day as compared to controls, whereas women showed intact expectancy ratings across conditions.

However, since participants did not extinguish fear expectancy responses, stress-related effects on extinction learning and extinction retrieval could not be assessed. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of acute stress on the retrieval of extinction memory. Although research in humans has shown that patients diagnosed with PTSD are subject to deficits in extinction retrieval Milad et al , it remains unclear how explicitly manipulating stress levels directly before extinction retrieval might alter the expression of this safety learning in healthy humans.

We addressed this question using a two-day classical fear-conditioning paradigm. Participants first acquired and extinguished conditioned fear as assessed with skin conductance response SCR , an index of sympathetic nervous system arousal. A day later, participants underwent a stress or control manipulation shortly before an extinction retrieval test.

Salivary cortisol concentrations were assayed across sessions to probe neuroendocrine responses to stress. Materials and Methods 2.

Due to the involvement of electric shock as well as the stress induction technique, participants were ineligible for the study is they were pregnant, had heart or blood pressure problems in the past or were currently being treated for such conditions.

Sustainable agroecosystems in climate change mitigation

Participants were also ineligible if they were being treated with any form of psychotropic medication. These criteria were necessary because we were unable to assess extinction learning if conditioned fear was never acquired, nor could we assess extinction retrieval if extinction learning had not occurred. Six participants were excluded due to experimenter or technical error, and four did not return on day 2 for the follow up session.

One final participant was eliminated prior to analysis because their baseline cortisol level on day 2 was greater than 3 standard deviations from the mean. By contrast, one rarely faces two rival stimuli presented to each eye, one of them being much more salient than the other as it is the case in CFS.

In the next section, we will assess whether the apparent ecological superiority of crowding over CFS is reflected in terms of empirical results.

Levels of Representation for Non-Conscious Contents In this part, we present the main findings obtained for stimuli rendered invisible with CFS and crowding, at different levels of visual processing: single features, motion signals, multi-feature objects including faces , and semantic contents. By features, we mean discrete components of an image that are detected independently of each other Suchow and Pelli, By semantic content, we refer to the meaning conveyed by a physical signal.

We only review results that are based on indirect measures of non-conscious processing, whereby a modulation of neural or behavioral responsiveness follows the presentation of an invisible stimulus.

Non-Conscious Processing of Single Features Low-level after-effects Before the emergence of CFS about a decade ago, several studies showed that simple features rendered invisible by binocular rivalry produce specific sensory illusions called AE.

The observation of such AE is considered as a behavioral signature of non-conscious processing, for simple features such as tilted lines tilt AE, Wade and Wenderoth, , square-wave gratings spatial frequency AE, Blake and Fox, , McCollough-type gratings orientation-contingent color AE, White et al. Building upon those precursors, and under more reliable suppression conditions Tsuchiya et al.

Likewise, crowded tilted lines are also known to induce tilt AE He et al.

Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

Yet, spatial frequency and orientation-contingent color AE remain to be tested under both CFS and crowding. Brightness is another low-level feature whose perception under CFS has been studied using contextual illusions. On the one hand, it was shown that the simultaneous brightness contrast illusion i. Yet, the same study reported that the Kanizsa triangle illusion i.

These findings suggest that under CFS, the low-level processes involved in brightness perception e. Interestingly, positive evidence for the Kanizsa triangle illusion was found when the inducer elements were crowded Lau and Cheung, Over the years, a debate has emerged as to know whether low-level AE such as the tilt AE are stronger when induced by visible compared to invisible stimuli.

He et al. On the other hand, it was shown that both tilt and motion AE were smaller when low-contrast stimuli were rendered invisible by binocular rivalry and crowding, compared to a situation of full visibility Blake et al.

This study further suggested that the independence between AE amplitudes and visibility found previously might stem from a saturation of the adaptive response at high stimulus contrast.

Yet, a subsequent study showed that when manipulating carefully attentional amplification, low-contrast stimuli could induce the same AE whether crowded or not Bi et al. Taken together, these results suggest that crowding may be seen as a bottleneck impacting visual processes differently depending on their position along the visual pathways.

If the independence between AE amplitude and crowding remains debated, the evidence is clearer for CFS: the very first paper introducing CFS showed that it had a detrimental effect on the amplitude of after-images Tsuchiya and Koch, , and recent findings using fMRI strengthened this idea by showing that CFS decreases the activity from signals as early as in the primary visual cortex Watanabe et al.

Comparing these results with those of Fang and He described above, one could deduce that crowding impacts visual processes at later stages compared to CFS. However, considering the high variability across experiments, we argue that clear conclusions should be drawn from systematic comparisons only see discussion.

Non-Conscious Processing of Motion Signals As we mentioned in the introduction, CFS and crowding present the advantage of maintaining stimuli out of awareness for potentially long durations.

So far, most studies that took advantage of this property focused on motion processing, by measuring motion AE from invisible stimuli. In CFS, translational motion has first been shown to induce motion AE that did not transfer across eyes, suggesting that the underlying processes are quite low-level Maruya et al.

Yet, with a slightly different setup, AE induced by translational and spiral motion were found to transfer across eyes, and to depend on attentional amplification Kaunitz et al.

Pedra de raio (folclore) – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Recently, AE from apparent and biological motions i. However, it was found that the extent of temporal integration was smaller under CFS than in condition of full visibility i. Taken together, these results suggest that motion processing is enabled under CFS at various levels of complexity, but with restricted periods of temporal integration. Interestingly, it was also shown that the processing of implied motion i.

Under crowding, translational motion is known to shift the apparent location of a subsequent stimulus Whitney, ; Bressler and Whitney, , while spiral motion Aghdaee, ; Aghdaee and Zandvakili, and apparent motion Rajimehr et al.

In addition, crowded biological motion in the form of dynamic facial expressions were found to be processed despite crowding, notably through the dorsal visual pathway Faivre et al. It appears from these findings that, as in CFS, motion processing at various levels of complexity is enabled under crowding. Non-Conscious Processing of Multi-Feature Objects Face stimuli Among all stimuli composed of multiple features, faces have undoubtedly triggered the most interest in the field of non-conscious vision, including studies relying on CFS and crowding.

Beyond its obvious ecological value, a single face stimulus conveys multiple levels of information which allows for probing non-conscious processing at several levels of complexity.

Here, we review the evidence for non-conscious face processing along two axes: the representation of facial identity and the emotional processing of facial expression. They found that the fusiform face area was more activated by fearful or neutral faces compared to scramble faces. In addition, they found that the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus were more activated by fearful compared to neutral faces.

Recently, it was found that this activation in the superior temporal sulcus was only present in participants with high negative affectivity a dispositional trait relevant to psychopathology, see Vizueta et al.

A subsequent study reported that category-specific responses induced by invisible faces vs.

Building upon these fMRI studies, the same research teams then focused on the electromagnetic correlates of non-conscious face processing. Jiang et al. Sterzer et al. Taken together, these results based on hemodynamic and electromagnetic correlates of neural activity suggest that the signals conveying both face-specific information i.

At the behavioral level, the evidence for processing of facial identity under CFS is less convincing. Using a method similar to CFS, Moradi et al. They found that such identity AE occurred when the adapting face was visible, but completely vanished when it was invisible. Later, Stein and Sterzer reported that identity AE could actually be induced by invisible faces, though with a reduced amplitude, and without interocular transfer i.

Similarly, Barbot and Kouider found that the identity of invisible faces induced repetition priming effects, but with no interocular transfer: participants were faster to categorize a target face as famous when it was preceded by an invisible identical vs.

As primes and targets were of different sizes i.

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This raises the possibility that identity priming for faces reflects low-level overlap rather than the activation of face representations per se. In addition, the existence of identity repetition priming in conditions of complete unawareness was recently challenged by a study reporting that priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when lower level features like color or location are visible i.

We come back to the issue of partial awareness in the discussion. Overall, the behavioral evidence for the processing of facial identity remains inconclusive. Later, it was shown that invisible adaptors depicting facial expressions of anger, fearfulness and happiness could bias the way a subsequent target face was perceived i.

Contrary to what was observed for the processing of identity, these results cannot stem from low-level retinotopic similarities, as adaptor and target stimuli were presented to opposite sides of the visual field and to different eyes.

Yet, facial expression AE were subsequently dismissed on the basis that it probably stemmed from residual visibility and attentional confounds Yang et al. Supporting this idea, another study showed that aftereffects from gender and race information were absent under strict control of awareness Amihai et al.

New elements to this debate were recently added by two studies, in which invisible fearful faces were found to change skin-conductance responses, both in the context of fear conditioning Raio et al. In addition, preference judgments biases were found to be induced by angry — but not happy — faces rendered invisible by CFS Almeida et al.

We can conclude from this group of recent studies that unlike facial identity, facial expressions rendered invisible by CFS elicit responses that can be captured at the behavioral level 3. Furthermore, we showed that crowded facial expressions can bias subsequent affective judgments of neutral pictographs happy faces elicited more pleasant judgments than angry faces, see Kouider et al.

Moreover, the preference bias induced by crowding faces was not only induced by static i. Using fMRI coupled with univariate analysis, it was found that compared to a neutral face, static happy faces activated primarily the ventral visual pathway including the fusiform face area, which was functionally connected to the amygdala Faivre et al.

By contrast, dynamic happy faces triggered the dorsal visual pathway including the posterior parietal cortex and the substantia innominata, a structure contiguous with the dorsal amygdala.

To our knowledge, no multivariate pattern analysis has been applied to try to decode the content of crowded stimuli. Along the same lines, it was shown that crowded emotional faces could influence a conscious judgment assessing the average emotion resulting of six flanker faces and one target crowded face while the same inverted and scrambled faces could not Haberman and Whitney, , Like our results, this finding shows that despite preventing object recognition, crowding does not impede the processing of emotional information extracted from objects.

Tool stimuli and the dorsal visual stream Besides faces, the processing of tools under CFS has also received much attention. Using fMRI, Fang and He first revealed that suppressed pictures of tools specifically activate the dorsal visual pathway, which is thought to support the guidance of actions Goodale and Milner, At the behavioral level, it was shown that suppressed pictures of tools — but not of non-manipulable objects like animals — could facilitate the categorization of subsequent targets i.

Recently, this finding was challenged by a study revealing that similar priming effects could actually be induced by any kind of elongated objects, rather than specifically manipulable objects Hebart and Hesselmann, ; Sakuraba et al.

As the previous priming effects may stem from such low-level confounds, the level of processing undergone by invisible tool stimuli remains unclear. Relying on multivariate analysis of blood-oxygen-level dependent signal, Hesselmann and Malach showed that features from invisible tools were encoded in the lateral occipital cortex, which rules out the possibility that stimulus energy was so low that all high-level processes were abolished.

Most importantly, they also found that CFS equally reduced brain activity in the ventral and dorsal visual pathways, which challenges the original claim that CFS has no or little influence on the dorsal visual pathway Almeida et al. The claim that CFS disrupts the ventral but not the dorsal visual pathway is further debated, as one study documented the capacity to grasp visually suppressed stimuli Roseboom and Arnold, , but see Ludwig et al.

Regarding crowding, although several lines of evidence suggest that multi-feature objects like arrows Faivre and Kouider, b , sequences of geometric shapes Atas et al. Yet, it was found that crowding decreases to the same extent the spatial resolution of both visually guided reaching and perception, suggesting that it impacts both the ventral and the dorsal visual pathways Bulakowski et al.

Non-Conscious Processing at the Semantic Level As of today, it remains unclear whether stimuli rendered invisible by CFS can be processed up to the semantic level. Yet, as masked stimuli become visible when presented for longer than a few 10s of milliseconds, masking is not well suited for the investigation of cognitive functions requiring sustained stimulation such as motion processing, perceptual learning, sequential learning, visual search, temporal integration, etc.

In this review, we present and compare two techniques that, contrary to masking, allow for prolonged stimulation while maintaining a reliable control of awareness. The first method, visual crowding, makes a peripheral object surrounded by similar flankers impossible to discriminate, so that one cannot determine consciously some of its specific features like its angular orientation, shape, or color Levi, ; Pelli and Tillman, ; Whitney and Levi, The second method, continuous flash suppression CFS , renders an object presented to one eye undetectable when the other eye is flashed with a stream of rapidly changing patterns, so that one cannot determine consciously whether the stimulus is present or absent Tsuchiya and Koch, ; for reviews see Lin and He, ; Sterzer et al.

A major distinction between crowding and CFS is at the phenomenological level: while crowding prevents stimulus discriminability, CFS prevents stimulus detectability although situations of partial awareness exist in CFS, see below. We focused on CFS and crowding as they constitute, as of today, the two most suited methods to study the temporal dynamics of conscious vs.

Although other methods can induce long periods of invisibility, they are not suited for psychophysical procedures e. The phenomena of crowding and CFS are driven by specific properties of the visual system and constitute by themselves specific research questions.

Only those that are relevant for the field of non-conscious vision will be covered here, as our primary goal is to offer a description of how these two methods contribute to the study of non-conscious perception, and by extension to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying consciousness. After discussing the specificities implied by both methods in terms of experimental design and procedure, we give a comparative overview of the main empirical results derived from each of them.

In light of this reviewing work, we propose criteria for choosing one method over the other depending on the research question at hand. Accordingly, we propose tentative guidelines to overcome those limitations and to evaluate, in a more quantitative and systematic fashion, the nature of non-conscious vision.

CFS and crowding are of great relevance to study non-conscious processes involving long-lasting stimuli. Although both methods can be used alternatively in this context, they are supported by different mechanisms, and are associated with distinct subjective experiences see Figure 1. Contrary to crowding which is a natural phenomenon occurring during normal vision, CFS has been developed explicitly as a tool to study non-conscious processes.

Therefore, the psychophysical properties of CFS are far less described than those of crowding. Hence, the following description is based on both published results and personal, undocumented observations which we hope summarize the general opinion of researchers in the field.

Illustration of typical crowding and CFS displays. A Schematic representation.

In crowding, participants stare at a fixation cross which here appears at the top of the screen , while a stimulus of interest here the letter S is presented in the periphery of the visual field, surrounded by similar flankers here, the letters X. Note that the display is constant across eyes. In CFS, the stimulus of interest is usually presented foveally to the non-dominant eye, while the dominant eye receives a stream of rapidly changing pattern called mondrians.

B Subjective percept. In crowding, observers report seeing a jumbled array of letters in the periphery i. In CFS, observers typically report seeing only the mondrians i. C Distribution map. In crowding, eye fixation depicted here by a red square and attentional focus depicted here by an orange area are always dissociated i. How to Arrange Stimuli? As mentioned above, in CFS, the stimulus of interest is typically presented foveally and in isolation to the non-dominant eye, while the dominant eye is flashed with a series of salient patterns called mondrians and changing every ms.

In order for suppression to be reliable, the mondrians have to share a maximum of featural similarities with the stimulus of interest, notably in terms of shape, spatial frequency, or color Hong and Blake, ; Zadbood et al. Crowding involves the binocular presentation of a peripheral stimulus surrounded by similar flankers. Importantly, crowding does not depend on stimulus size Tripathy and Cavanagh, , which allows for preventing awareness of relatively large stimuli i.

According to an empirical law, the center-to-center spacing between the stimulus of interest and its flankers must be inferior to half the eccentricity in order for crowding to occur Bouma, In addition, the degree of eccentricity and critical spacing needed to induce crowding varies depending on several factors such as the stimulus complexity e.

Even though crowding applies to simple stimuli van den Berg et al. Accordingly, the disruption of awareness for such simple stimuli might involve not only crowding, but also unspecific mechanisms leading to signal loss at high eccentricities in the visual field e. Note however, that such peripheral limitations can be counter-balanced by scaling up stimuli, as the extent of crowding does not scale with stimulus size Tripathy and Cavanagh, As opposed to crowding, the efficacy of CFS does not seem to correlate with stimulus complexity, which may qualify the latter as a preferred method for preventing awareness of simple, single feature stimuli like oriented lines, or color patches.

The duration of stimulation is a determinant factor in experimental designs for two main reasons. First, long-lasting stimulation allows for studying the non-conscious processing of dynamic stimuli e. Second, it allows for manipulating stimulus onset asynchronies SOA independently of visibility, contrary to what happens during backward masking in which an increase of SOA is usually associated with an increase in visibility Weisstein and Haber, Note that longer is not necessarily better, as increasing stimulus duration can have the consequence of inversing facilitatory priming effects into inhibitory habituation effects for stimuli rendered invisible, whether it is for crowding Faivre and Kouider, a or for CFS Barbot and Kouider, ; Faivre and Koch, a.

How sustained is invisibility under crowding and CFS? Although no study investigated directly whether peripheral stimuli could escape crowding after relatively long exposures i.

Thus, in principle, one might be able to prevent awareness for extended durations, as long as observers do not stare directly at the stimulus. This last aspect requires oculometric control, and notably the use of a gaze-contingent display, in which the stimulus of interest is replaced by a non-informative pattern as soon as the observer stops staring at the fixation cross.

We called the experimental procedure fulfilling this condition gaze contingent crowding GCC; Faivre and Kouider, b ; Kouider et al. Compared to crowding, oculometric control in CFS is far less developed, mostly due to the use of stereoscopes that are usually not compatible with eye-tracking but see Rothkirch et al. No study investigated systematically the maximal duration of invisibility allowed by CFS.

In fact, the time taken by a stimulus to break suppression is now commonly used as a dependent variable for inferring non-conscious processing [i. How Important is Attention? Although the links between attention and consciousness are intricate and complex Lamme, ; Koch and Tsuchiya, ; Cohen et al. For our purpose here, attention seems to plays a dual role.

First, attentional amplification is known to decrease the impact of crowding and thus to increase visibility Yeshurun and Rashal, ; to our knowledge no direct investigation of the links between attention and the strength of suppression under CFS has been performed. In addition, even without awareness, non-conscious effects are of bigger amplitude when stimuli are attended vs.

In CFS, the location of attentional focus is usually superimposed to the location of eye fixation but see Bahrami et al. By contrast, in crowding, the location of attentional focus is never superimposed to the location of eye fixation e. Thus, in order to maximize effects amplitudes, participants have to deploy their attentional focus away from where they are staring at.

One crucial condition to isolate the neural correlates of visual consciousness with a contrastive approach is to compare two states of consciousness while the stimulation remains constant Baars, When this condition is fulfilled, observed differences between the two states of consciousness can hardly be argued to reflect confounds in terms of signal strength.

This condition is well verified with ambiguous figures, binocular rivalry, or attentional blink see Kim and Blake, for a review.

Some efforts have been made to apply the same logic to visual masking: by reversing the order of masks and blanks, a stimulus is either visible when directly surrounded by blanks, or invisible when surrounded by masks e.

Although this method provided valuable results, one can still deplore that it only fulfills the criterion of constant stimulation at a global scale i. In crowding, one usually contrasts visible and invisible conditions by manipulating the spacing or the similarity between the stimulus of interest and its flankers. This manipulation does not fulfill the criterion of constant stimulation, and therefore is not optimal in the context of a contrastive study of consciousness.

However, by relying on psychophysical thresholding methods, it was shown that one can obtain conditions in which a crowded feature i. Future studies are needed to assess whether such conditions can be obtained for multi-feature stimuli e. Although this approach might potentially satisfy the criterion of constant stimulation, it suffers from methodological flaws, which are described in this volume [see the review by Stein and Sterzer and Gayet et al.

Other studies have attempted to minimize the difference in terms of stimulation between conscious and non-conscious conditions, notably by presenting to the same eye the stimulus of interest superimposed to the mondrians in the conscious condition e. It appears that reaching reliable perceptual changes at constant stimulation still requires efforts, both for crowding and CFS. Only then those two methods could be used for a strict contrastive description of the neural correlates of consciousness.

Is it Really Invisible? Crowding-induced undiscriminability and CFS-induced undetectability represent two qualitatively distinct perceptual impairments.

It implies that crowding and CFS stem from different mechanisms that may be responsible for some of the specific features we describe hereafter. Although the extent of crowding varies depending on stimuli and participants, it is rather stable over time, which insures the possibility of prolonged experimental sessions and therefore accurate measures but see Chung, ; Sun et al.

In CFS, a decrease of contrast detection thresholds after extensive training was recently documented Ludwig et al. In some other cases, suppression appears to break after shorter and shorter durations over an experimental session, which undermines the possibility of displaying long-lasting stimuli without awareness this applies specifically to dynamic stimuli, see below. These observations are mainly based on personal experience, and inter-individual differences remain to be tested systematically for both methods.

Likewise, no study has directly compared the causes of discrimination vs. How Ecological is It? As any sensory organs, the visual system is tuned according to the optical properties naturally present in the environment. Therefore, the contrast between conscious and non-conscious vision may be most accurate when performed in ecological conditions, which mimic the natural environment.

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